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How do Covid-19 Vaccines Work?

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How do Covid-19 Vaccines Work? Since the emergence of the novel Coronavirus, a lot of information about the need to strengthen the immune system went viral, but how  does this system work in our human bodies? And how do the vaccines – that have begun to be distributed and used in several countries – help it fight the virus? 

Undoubtedly, the immune system is very vital the survival of human beings, as it defends the human body through several functions, on  top of which are the immune cells alerting the body to the  appearance of infected cells and the occurrence of an attack on it.  The stimulation process is followed by activating the so-called  “acquired immunity” in order to protect the body in the future, and  here comes the role of the medical vaccine. 

Danny Altman, an expert in immunology and infectious diseases at  Imperial College London, explains to the British Guardian website that  acquired immunity has something like a memory, “which is what is  employed in vaccines.”

Acquired immunity consists of two types of white blood cells, the first  type B, known as B cells, produces antibodies that stick to the virus  inside the body to prevent it from entering the cells, while the second  type T kills the cells that have already been infected with the virus. 

T cells also produce substances called cytokines, which help the B  cells to secrete antibodies in the long term, especially when the body  is exposed to the same virus again, which explains the multiple japs  that needed to be taken to acquire the immunity. 

In this video: https://youtu.be/XgE-9jPatQw, the previous structuring of  the B and T cells is furtherly explained. 

It explains that the B and T cells and the resulting substances and  antibodies usually fight any virus that enters the body. However,  several studies indicated that some people with Covid 19 virus  contained some of these elements, but not all of them, and that the  response of the immune system to other cases caused the  prolongation of infection with the virus for weeks or months. 

A newly published study, in a journal specialized in microbiology,  indicated that the antibodies to the Coronavirus remain in the body  for only three months, after which the number of antibodies begins to  diminish. While another study published on the Science Alert website  indicated that the antibodies would persist in the body for a period  ranging between six to eight months. 

However, Professor of Influenza Viruses at Imperial College London,  Wendy Barclay, points out that the resurgence of seasonal viruses that  cause colds and influenza means that “immunity does not extend for  long periods,” what is meant here for years, a view supported by an  increasing number of researches. 

While seasonal influenza needs to get a different vaccine every year  for the ability of this virus to mutate, so far, no evidence has emerged  of the ability of the Coronavirus to mutate like influenza. The good  news here is that all the recently announced vaccines, Moderna,  Sputnik V, Pfizer and Sinovac and many others, work to stimulate the 

immune system to provide the required protection against the Covid 19. The next table shows the differences among Covid-19 vaccines. 

The expert in immunology and infectious diseases, Danny Altman, said  that the new strain, which was announced in England, “is unlikely to  cause problems in the process of obtaining the vaccine.” Vaccines  are still able to stimulate the production of antibodies to the virus and 

the tapered protein it contains helps it penetrate cells in the human  body. 

The vaccine can work better than natural immunity, but it is not clear  yet for how long the vaccines will have an effect and whether they  are able to prevent transmission as well as protect against infection  with the virus. 

Many communities and scientists are skeptical about the nature of  vaccines and they have many concerns of injecting (untrusted)  chemicals in their bodies, while others find the whole Covid-19 pandemic issue to be a conspiracy theory, with no exact evidence or mentioning for the beneficiary parties. 

Nevertheless, vaccination technology has evolved dramatically in the  last decades resulting into different sophisticated technologies that  ensure immunity as shown in this video: https://youtu.be/- 92HQA0GcI8. The technology of dealing with very tiny objects and  hacking into their system using the RNA is very promising. The recovery of Covid-19 requires awareness of people and governments. Natural  selection is very powerful and will work eventually, but many lives  would have been lost by then, therefore, getting vaccinated is the  fastest way to get back to normal lives. 

References 

Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan,  China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020. 

World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s remarks at the media briefing on  2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020. 2020. 

Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of  2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med. 2020.

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