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How COVID has affected Global Public Health?

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By 31 December 2020, COVID-19 had infected some 82 million people, killing more than 1.8 million in the world. However, preliminary estimates show that by 2020, COVID-19 directly and indirectly excess death. Based on an assessment made by 2020, the total mortality attributed to COVID-19 directly and indirectly is likely to be significantly underrated with over 3.3 million the WHO’s most recent COVID-19 deaths. The COVID-19 pandemic has a major influence on other diseases around the world’s diagnosis and treatment. As expected, social division and lockdowns of infectious conditions such as seasonal influenza have decreased diagnosis rates as social contact.

Approximately half the world’s population had no access to critical health care prior to the pandemic. The world population had no access before the pandemic to essential health care, which has increased exponentially by the pandemic. Health systems is the basic right of human beings and must be accessible globally but the scenario is quite the contrary. The countries should have been well prepared for future pandemic events, to minimize the impact on the control of other diseases. The ever increasing death tolls speaks in volumes about the in competencies. 

Certain states report only COVID-19 fatalities in hospitals or in people who have been tested positive for COVID-19. Furthermore, poor or poorly resourced information systems for health are not properly measured. This pandemic has likely led to increased deaths. The WHO’s second ‘pulsar survey’ in March 2021 showed persistent pandemic disorders over a large period of one year and 90% reported severe health services disorders. Moreover, COVID-19 identified ongoing income, age, race, sex, and geographic location inequalities. COVID-19’s disparities are shocking news worldwide. Despite recent global health gains, the health and well-being of social, economic, political and environmental determinants continue to be at risk to people all over the world because of the pandemic. The risk of threatening hard-earned health and growth in recent decade is being weakened because of the COVID-19. The weaker healthcare systems, while tackling through resource-intensive environments are one of the divisive challenges. 

Data from COVID-19 World Symptoms Survey showed decreasing preventive behaviours with household overcrowding, such as physical distance, wear and washing of hands. Similar trends have been observed for the hand washing and masking, which highlight socioeconomic vulnerabilities. In the recent World Health Organization (WHO) assessment of health information system capacities, for example, only half of the countries included breakdown data in the published national health statistics.

Investment in strong information systems is essential to ensure that unbundled information reaches decision-makers and achieves fair health outcomes. We have a stronger and fairer Health Information Systems capability to better measure progress towards sustainable development goals and WHO Triple Billions of targets. “Now we’re less than nine years from 2030,” says Dr. Samira Asma, Associate Director-General for the Information Analytics and Impact Delivery Division at WHO.” We know where the gaps are and the solutions are at stake. We must commit ourselves now and invest in accelerating progress and achieving our targets.”

The world had progressed gradually before COVID-19, but now the situation is worrying. In its World Health Statistics Report 2021, more than 50 health indicators have been presented with latest data and trends concerning sustainable development goals and the WHO Triple Billion targets. The global life expectancy has been shown to rise from 66.8 in 2000 to 73.3 in 2019. However, the progress made before the pandemic achieved several goals, such as reducing the time limit to NCDs, malaria incidence and tuberculosis, and new HIV infections, remained too slow and uneven. Many of the underlying health factors still need to be considerably increased and COVID-19 is a further call to remind us that we risk urgent disease. Children and women in low and medium revenues are also more at risk of malnutrality, including stunning, wasting, and anemia during pregnancy, whereas people with high medium revenue are more likely to get overweight.

A number of countries had moved to global health before COVID-19. Despite ongoing disparities, increases in the coverage of essential health services have been observed across all income groups and types of services. However, there has been deterioration in financial protection. According to recent figures, between 2000 and 2015 a 10% share of the budget spent on health care was increased from 9% to 13% and almost 3% of the budget spent on medical care over 25%. 

Respiratory symptoms include cough, fever, air problems and in some cases, atypical pneumonia are some of the most common characteristics of the new infectious COVID-19. In addition to the respiratory system, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems appear to be affected by the SARS-CoV-2 system. In addition, different neurological symptoms were observed after SARS-CoV-2 infections. Examples include hyposmia, dysgeusia, encephalitis, meningitis, and acute stroke disease. These neurological effects are suggested by direct infection of the brain, hyper inflammatory response from the virus, hyper coagulation, and immune-mediated post-infectious processes. This can lead to numerous psychological problems, such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD).

One of the key lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic is the importance of political will in protecting people against epidemics. The COVID-19 outbreak has also caused the disintegration of the world’s population in several areas of the world. To prepare themselves better for the next new infectious agent, public health systems should continue to develop appropriate monitoring programs, rapid diagnostic techniques, and robust research initiatives that can detect and understand the fundamental biology and treatment of new organisms when necessary.

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